..• Features mechanisms underlying viral immune evasion
..• Explores viroporins expressed by different families of viruses
..• Discusses the emerging importance of the innate immune mechanisms against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and latency
..The book starts with dissecting mechanisms underlying viral immune evasion via exploiting the host complement system by vaccinia virus, and by modulating the type 1 interferon response by RNA viruses. Yet another chapter looks into how viroporins expressed by different families of viruses causing influenza A virus, SARS, hepatitis C and HIV interact with several cellular pathways. Understanding of these mechanisms can aid the development of novel potential anti‑viral targets. The chapter on tuberculosis discusses the emerging importance of the innate immune mechanisms against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and latency. This book has a strong focus on fungal pathogenesis and immunity, starting with virulence and host factors that attain great importance in candidiasis and associated escape tricks of seriously opportunistic fungi. Two chapters on Aspergillus fumigatus elaborate on the pathogenic mechanisms: first discussing A. fumigatus‑airway epithelium interaction, followed by fungal and host factors that are paramount in the development of allergic and invasive aspergillosis. In the subsequent chapter, there is a general discussion on the innate and adaptive immune responses against primary and opportunistic fungal pathogens.
..Most cancer deaths are a result of metastasis. The spread of a primary tumor to colonize neighboring and distant organs is the relentless endgame that defines the neoplastic process. Patients who have been diagnosed with cancer are treated to prevent both the recurrence of the tumor at the site of origin and metastasis that would re-stage them as advanced stage IV cancer. Historically and still with some types of cancer, stage IV is perceived by patients as “terminal.” Fortunately, recent molecular therapies have extended the lives of patients with advanced cancer and reassuringly people living with metastatic disease increasingly visit our clinics.
..What is the path forward? Given that the consilience of science and medicine is a dynamic art from which therapies arise, it would be misguided to consider any single work adequate at capturing the horizon for research. So with humility we constructed this text as primer for scientists. It begins with a broad introduction to the clinical management of common cancers. This is intended to serve as a foundation for investigators to consider when developing basic science hypotheses. Unquestionably, medical and surgical care of cancer patients reveals biology and dictates how novel therapeutics will ultimately be evaluated in clinical trials. The second section of this text offers provocative and evolving insights that underscore the breadth of science involved in the elucidation of cancer metastasis biology. The text concludes with information that integrates scientific and clinical foundations to highlight translational research.
..This book serves as a framework for scientists to conceptualize clinical and translational knowledge on the complexity of disease that is metastatic cancer.
The Posterior Intrahepatic Approach in Liver Surgery
978-1-4614-7632-0 06/03/2013 Launois, Bernard Bernard Launois
..This book is testament to the approach of Professor Glyn Jamieson of Adelaide, Australia, and Professor Bernard Launois of Rennes, France and their appreciation of the pedicles of the liver and adaptation of a posterior intrahepatic approach to these pedicles for hepatectomy or segmental hepatectomy. Their description has demonstrated and popularized pedicular control during hepatectomy and described new techniques for this approach. The technique has many advantages: being rapid and achievable with little blood loss and allowing not only control of bleeding and biliary leakage, but, by initially clamping pedicles, allowing definition of the parenchymal territory supplied by those pedicles and thus a clear index of the line of incisions into the parenchyma. The technique has been used not only for liver resection, but for isolation of the pedicles for the intrahepatic exposure of the bile ducts in the management of benign and malignant biliary strictures.
..The technique has proved of value in right hepatectomy and is of particular value in extended left hepatectomy or posterior sectorectomy on the right. The line of demarcation between the posterior and anterior sectors of the right liver is difficult to define and somewhat variable. There is no doubt that control of the pedicles at the hilus greatly facilitates the dissection of this plane, whether it be with preservation of segments VI and VII or during extended left hepatectomy.
..Professors Launois and Jamieson describe the relevant anatomy, their technique, and their results in this book with a clear and concise description atlas of a novel surgical technique.
978-1-4614-7650-4 05/24/2013 Pohlmann, Stefan Stefan Pohlmann
..For a virus to invade a host cell it needs to penetrate the physical barrier imposed by the plasma membrane. Viruses have evolved specialized surface proteins to meet this challenge. These proteins facilitate delivery of the viral genetic information into the host cell by either fusing the viral envelope with a host cell membrane (enveloped viruses) or by forming membrane pores (non‑enveloped viruses). Membrane fusion and pore formation critically depend on the engagement of host cell receptors and receptor choice is a key determinant of viral tropism. The multi‑faceted interplay between viral and cellular factors during virus entry is a fascinating field of study, which can provide important insight into viral pathogenesis and define new targets for intervention. This book provides a comprehensive overview of this exciting field of research.
..Quantitative modeling has become an essential procedure toward understanding the cell at the systems level. Insights into the inner workings of biological networks can be obtained from mathematical analysis of biochemical models that might not be possible from direct experimentation alone. As one of advanced simulation platforms, the E-Cell System is of central relevance to the systems biology community. The E-Cell System, a multi-algorithm, multi-timescale object-oriented simulation platform, can be used to construct virtual biological systems. It permits the construction of model structure, such as gene regulatory and/or biochemical networks equivalent to a cell system or a part of the cell and perform both quantitative and qualitative analysis.
..E-Cell System: Basic Concepts and Applications is a comprehensive reference (basics and applications) for the E-Cell System. The features and the inner workings of the software are written by the software developers themselves, while biological applications are described by systems biologists. The primary target audience for this book are biological research scientists interested in biochemical simulation and analysis. Others who may be interested include computer scientists or computational biologists concerned with the development of software for cell simulation or systems biology. The contents do not require any prior experience in modeling/simulation or skills in computer programming.
978-1-58706-660-3 01/03/2013 Roberts, Adam Adam Roberts
..As our understanding of mobile genetic elements continues to grow we are gaining a deeper appreciation of their importance in shaping the bacterial genome and in the properties they confer to their bacterial hosts. These include, but are by no means limited to, resistance to antibiotics, and heavy metals, toxin production and increased virulence, production of antibiotics and the ability to utilize a diverse range of metabolic substrates. We are also gaining an understanding of diversity of these elements and their interactions with each other; a property which continually complicates any attempt to classify them. We are learning more about the molecular mechanisms by which they translocate to new genomic sites both within genomes and between different bacteria. This book provides a timely, state of the art update on the properties of an important selection of different bacterial integrative mobile genetic elements and the myriad of different ways in which they move and influence the biology of the host bacterium. The chapters are all written by authors who have undertaken pioneering work in their respective fields, making this book vital reading for all who are interested in the biology of bacteria and the mobile elements they carry.
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Keys for Translational Medicine and Biology
978-1-4614-5946-0 12/07/2012 Busson, Pierre Pierre Busson
..Although listed as a rare cancer in a majority of countries, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high incidence and appears as a serious public health problem in several highly populated areas of Southeast Asia and to a lesser extent in North Africa. Worldwide, its incidence rates at 85,000 new cases per year (Globocan 2008). Thus, in terms of incidence, among human virus-associated cancers, NPC ranks third behind liver and cervix carcinoma (750,000 and 530,000, respectively). In 2008, the mortality rate of NPC was still about 51,000 per year worldwide (Globocan).
..NPC is a multifactorial disease related to dietary, viral and genetic factors. Despite fascinating biological characteristics, NPC has long been aside from the mainstream of cancer research for both scientific and socio-economical reasons. It is noteworthy that biological investigations have long been hampered by the paucity of laboratory models and the lack of data on premalignant states. However, recently, in several high incidence countries, strong economic growth and rapid progress in health care has propelled NPC on the front stage of cancer research, worldwide. Simultaneously, in other places, the identification of Head and Neck cancers associated to human papilloma viruses has renewed interest for NPC as a proxy model of viral carcinogenesis.
..As explained in the title, this book intends to contribute to “translational medicine and biology”. By this, we mean a bi-directional process whose aim is to develop knowledge from basic science towards diagnostic and therapeutic applications and reciprocally to raise new questions for basic scientists. One general requirement for translational research is to establish a multidisciplinary knowledge base shared by the actors of various specialties. This is precisely the aim of the twelve chapters of this book. It will be useful for scientists, including PhD students, who want to become more familiar with the main concepts of NPC pathology, medical imaging and current therapeutics. Conversely, medical doctors who want to update their knowledge of NPC biology will benefit from chapters on viral and cellular oncogenesis.
..The discovery of Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) in the late 1990s ushered in a new age of discovery for innate immunity. The importance of TLRs for immunology and biomedical research was recognized with the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 2011. The prize was shared by three scientists: Ralph Steinman (for the discovery of dendritic cells, which express TLRs and whose activation by them provides a link between innate and adaptive immunity), Jules Hoffman (who made the pioneering observation of Toll in fruit fly anti‑fungal immunity) and Bruce Beutler (who uncovered the role of TLR4 in the response to LPS). Work on TLRs inspired many researchers, and led to a search for other receptors in innate immunity. There are now several additional families of such receptors known, notably RIG‑I‑like receptors (RLRs), C‑type lectin receptors (CLRs) and AIM2‑like receptors (ALRs). A notable feature is the detection of nucleic acids from pathogens, but also from host cells in certain contexts, particularly in autoimmune diseases.
..Nucleic Acid Sensors and Antiviral Immunity presents a timely and extensive account of the detection of nucleic acids in infection and inflammation. We have chapters by Beutler, Hoffman and Shizuo Akira, who is the most cited immunologist of the past ten years, for his work on innate immunity, which gives us an indication of the importance of the field. Several other pioneers in the field present comprehensive and highly lucid up‑to‑date accounts of their particular interests, revealing the large amount of activity in the past few years, as the literature continues to grow and become ever more complex. The fly yet again provides new insights, and anti‑viral mechanisms in this key model organism are described. Other topics include the ability of viruses such as poxviruses, hepatitis C virus and HIV to interfere with detection and signalling; new insights into signalling including subcellular localization of signalling proteins, complex regulation of TLRs and RLRs by ubiquination and negative regulation by miRNAs; and the role of autophagy in antiviral defence. The importance of the RLRs in viral detection is widely reviewed. DNA sensing by ALRs and other receptors is extensively described, and the prospect of additional as yet unknown receptors for DNA debated, revealing a field that is still burgeoning. The prospect of therapeutic utility is covered in the context of using nucleic acids or other compounds as agents to promote anti‑viral immunity.
..This book therefore represents an unprecedented account of this important aspect of immunology, by a stellar cast of authors who have defined the field. We have a key resource which should act as a primary source of information. The chapters will inspire researchers to continue on their quest to provide mechanistic insights into anti‑viral innate immunity. The discoveries provide us with new strategies in the never ending war between humanity and viral infection, and will help in the ultimate goal to provide treatments to use against viruses which continue to present a major threat to human health.
978-1-4614-5397-0 11/14/2012 Meroni, Germana Germana Meroni
..• Gives an overview of state‑of‑the‑art basic findings on the tripartite motif (TRIM, also known as RBCC) family members
..• Discusses physiological and pathological roles of the TRIM
..• Provides the foundation to contribute to foster novel discoveries in the rapidly evolving field of TRIM proteins biology
..The genomic ‘golden age’ has delivered the sequence of numerous novel genes while leaving us with many unanswered questions about their function. This is particularly true for gene families as, often, members are annotated based on homology rather than function. The tripartite motif family belonged to this category, although, during the last few years, the field boosted an important wealth of biochemical, cellular and physiological breakthrough data. In the first part of this book, we attempt to offer an overview of state‑of‑the‑art basic findings on the tripartite motif (TRIM, also known as RBCC) family members and to deal in the second part with their relevant and growing physiological and pathological roles.
978-1-57059-709-1 11/13/2012 Arensman, Robert M. Robert M. Arensman
..Dibujo de la portada Gabriela Guiñez Gómez.
..Este manual de cirugía pediátrica ha sido preparado como una referencia rápida para obtener información sobre los problemas quirúrgicos comunes de la infancia. ..Representa la información básica razonablemente conocida o demostrada con poca teoría o deducción. Su objetivo es proporcionar la información necesaria para diagnosticar, para escoger estudios de diagnóstico o para iniciar el tratamiento. ..La información contenida aquí es un punto de partida que lleva a estudiar más a fondo los problemas o condiciones que afligen a nuestros niños.