From all to (nearly) none: Tracing adaptin evolution in Fungi
The five adaptor protein (AP) complexes function in cargo-selection and coat-recruitment stages of vesicular transport in eukaryotic cells. Much of what we know about AP complex function has come from experimental work using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model. Here, using a combination of comparative genomic and phylogenetic approaches we provide evolutionary context for the knowledge gained from this model system by searching the genomes of diverse fungi as well as a member of the sister group to all fungi, Fonticula alba, for presence of AP subunits. First, we demonstrate that F. alba contains all five AP complexes; whereas, similar to S. cerevisiae, most fungi retain only AP-1 to 3. As exceptions, the glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis maintains a complete AP-4 and chytrid fungi Spizellomyces punctatus and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis retain partial AP-4 complexes. The presence of AP-4 subunits in diverse fungi suggests that AP-4 has been independently lost up to seven times in the fungal lineage. In addition to the trend of loss in fungi, we demonstrate that the duplication that gave rise to the β subunits of the AP-1 and AP-2 complexes in S. cerevisiae occurred before the divergence of F. alba and Fungi. Finally, our investigation into the AP complement of basal fungi (Microsporidia and Cryptomycota) demonstrates that while the cryptomycete Rozella allomyces contains an adaptin complement similar to other fungi, the extremely reduced Microsporidia retain, at most, a single cryptic AP complex in the absence of clathrin or any other putative AP-associated coat protein.
Multipronged interaction of the COG complex with intracellular membranes
The conserved oligomeric Golgi complex is a peripheral membrane protein complex that orchestrates the tethering and fusion of intra-Golgi transport carriers with Golgi membranes. In this study we have investigated the membrane attachment of the COG complex and it’s on/off dynamic on Golgi membranes. Several complimentary approaches including knock-sideways depletion, FRAP, and FLIP revealed that assembled COG complex is not diffusing from Golgi periphery in live HeLa cells. Moreover, COG subunits remained membrane-associated even in COG4 and COG7 depleted cells when Golgi architecture was severely affected. Overexpression of myc-tagged COG sub-complexes revealed that different membrane-associated COG partners including β-COP, p115 and SNARE STX5 preferentially bind to different COG assemblies, indicating that COG subunits interact with Golgi membranes in a multipronged fashion.
Novel effects of Brefeldin A (BFA) in signaling through the insulin receptor (IR) pathway and regulating FoxO1-mediated transcription
Brefeldin A (BFA) is a fungal metabolite best known for its ability to inhibit activation of ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) and thereby inhibit secretory traffic. BFA also appears to regulate the trafficking of the GLUT4 glucose transporter by inducing its relocation from intracellular stores to the cell surface. Such redistribution of GLUT4 is normally regulated by insulin-mediated signaling. Hence, we tested whether BFA may intersect with the insulin pathway. We report that BFA causes the activation of the insulin receptor (IR), IRS-1, Akt-2, and AS160 components of the insulin pathway. The response is mediated through phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt kinase since the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and the Akt inhibitors MK2206 and perifosine inhibit the BFA effect. BFA-mediated activation of the insulin pathway results in Akt-mediated phosphorylation of the insulin-responsive transcription factor FoxO1. This leads to nuclear exclusion of FoxO1 and a decrease in transcription of the insulin-responsive gene SIRT-1. Our findings suggest novel effects for BFA in signaling and transcription, and imply that BFA has multiple intracellular targets and can be used to regulate diverse cellular responses that include vesicular trafficking, signaling and transcription.
Binding of the vesicle docking protein p115 to the GTPase Rab1b regulates membrane recruitment of the COPI vesicle coat
Membrane recruitment of the COPI vesicle coat is fundamental to its function and contributes to compartment identity in the early secretory pathway. COPI recruitment is triggered by guanine nucleotide exchange activating the Arf1 GTPase, but the key exchange factor, GBF1, is a peripheral membrane component whose membrane association is dependent on another GTPase, Rab1. Inactive Rab GTPases are in a soluble complex with guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) and activation of Rab GTPases by exchange factors can be enhanced by GDI dissociation factors (GDFs). In the present study, we investigated the vesicle docking protein p115 and it’s binding to the Rab1 isoform Rab1b. Inhibition of p115 expression induced dissociation of Rab1b from Golgi membranes. Rab1b bound the cc2 domain of p115 and p115 lacking this domain failed to recruit Rab1b. Further, p115 inhibition blocked association of the COPI coat with Golgi membranes and this was suppressed by constitutive activation of Rab1b. These findings show p115 enhancement of Rab1b activation leading to COPI recruitment suggesting a connection between the vesicle docking machinery and the vesicle coat complex during the establishment of post-ER compartment identity.
Quantitative analysis of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) as enzymes
The proteins that possess guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity, which include about ~800 G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs),1 15 Arf GEFs,2 81 Rho GEFs,3 8 Ras GEFs,4 and others for other families of GTPases,5 catalyze the exchange of GTP for GDP on all regulatory guanine nucleotide binding proteins. Despite their importance as catalysts, relatively few exchange factors (we are aware of only eight for ras superfamily members) have been rigorously characterized kinetically.5–13 In some cases, kinetic analysis has been simplistic leading to erroneous conclusions about mechanism (as discussed in a recent review14). In this paper, we compare two approaches for determining the kinetic properties of exchange factors: (i) examining individual equilibria, and; (ii) analyzing the exchange factors as enzymes. Each approach, when thoughtfully used,14,15 provides important mechanistic information about the exchange factors. The analysis as enzymes is described in further detail. With the focus on the production of the biologically relevant guanine nucleotide binding protein complexed with GTP (G•GTP), we believe it is conceptually simpler to connect the kinetic properties to cellular effects. Further, the experiments are often more tractable than those used to analyze the equilibrium system and, therefore, more widely accessible to scientists interested in the function of exchange factors.
AKAP350 (AKAP450/AKAP9/CG-NAP) is an A-kinase anchoring protein, which recruits multiple signaling proteins to the Golgi apparatus and the centrosomes. Several proteins recruited to the centrosomes by this scaffold participate in the regulation of the cell cycle. Previous studies indicated that AKAP350 participates in centrosome duplication. In the present study we specifically assessed the role of AKAP350 in the progression of the cell cycle. Our results showed that interference with AKAP350 expression inhibits G1/S transition, decreasing the initiation of both DNA synthesis and centrosome duplication. We identified an AKAP350 carboxyl-terminal domain (AKAP350CTD), which contained the centrosomal targeting domain of AKAP350 and induced the initiation of DNA synthesis. Nevertheless, AKAP350CTD expression did not induce centrosomal duplication. AKAP350CTD partially delocalized endogenous AKAP350 from the centrosomes, but increased the centrosomal levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). Accordingly, the expression of this AKAP350 domain increased the endogenous phosphorylation of nucleophosmin by Cdk2, which occurs at the G1/S transition and is a marker of the centrosomal activity of the cyclin E-Cdk2 complex. Cdk2 recruitment to the centrosomes is a necessary event for the development of the G1/S transition. Altogether, our results indicate that AKAP350 facilitates the initiation of DNA synthesis by scaffolding Cdk2 to the centrosomes, and enabling its specific activity at this organelle. Although this mechanism could also be involved in AKAP350-dependent modulation of centrosomal duplication, it is not sufficient to account for this process.