Safety evaluation of genetically modified mustard (V4) seeds in terms of allergenicity: Comparison with native crop
Volume 3, Issue 4
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Pages 273 - 282http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/gmcr.20191
: GM mustard, IgE, crude protein extracts, food allergy, genetically modified crops, simulated gastric fluid
Authors: Amita Misra, Sandeep Kumar, Alok Kumar Verma, Nidhi P. Chanana, Mukul Das, Vibha Dhawan and Premendra D. Dwivedi View affiliations
Genetically modified (GM) mustard line (V4) with increased carotenoid content was compared with native mustard to find the difference in allergenic potential, if any. Simulated gastric fluid (SGF) digestibility of crude protein extract from GM as well as its native counterpart mustard crop was envisaged to understand the intended or unintended changes in GM crop along with IgE immunoblotting. BALB/c mice were used as model for allergenicity studies for monitoring total and specific IgE, specific IgG1, histamine level, histopathology, and systemic anaphylaxis score. Allergenicity of mustard was checked in humans by clinical history, skin prick test and IgE levels. Similar results were evident by significant increase in total IgE, specific IgE, IgG1, histamine levels, in GM and native mustard in comparison to control group. Prominent anaphylactic symptoms (score 2: 60%; score 3: 20%; score 4: 20% in native mustard and score 2: 40%; score 3: 40%; score 4: 20% in GM mustard) and eruptive histopathological changes were observed in both GM and native mustard when compared with controls. One protein of approximately 16 kDa was found stable up to 1 h in both GM as well as non GM mustard. IgE immunoblotting detected three protein components of approximately 29, 24 and 16 kDa in both GM and non GM varieties. Collectively, our data demonstrate substantially equivalent allergic responses against GM as well as its native counterpart. Therefore, the GM mustard may be as safe as its native counterpart with reference to allergenic responses.
Received: November 15, 2011; Accepted: March 28, 2012; Published Online: June 29, 2012
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